Newman’s life and times

Year

Age

Event

1801

Cardinal Newman born February 21

Literary Context
1801 – Tennyson b.

Historical Context
1801 – Suppression of Irish Parliament; Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland
1803 – Napoleonic Wars begin

1808

7

Goes to Ealing School

Literary Context
1814 – Wordsworth:The Excursion; Bryon: The Corsair; Scott: Waverley
1815 – Coleridge: Kubla Khan published

Historial Context
1815 – Battle of Waterloo; Corn Law; Congress of Vienna restores Papal States

1816

15

Converted to Evangelical Christianity

1817

16

Becomes an undergraduate at Trinity College, Oxford

Literary Context
1818 – Byron: Don Juan

1820

19

Achieves a B.A. Degree

Literary Context
1820 – Scott: Ivanhoe; Keats: Ode to a Nightingale
1821 – Keats d.: James Mill: Elements of Political Economy

Historical Context
1820 – Accession of George IV; Cato St conspiracy

1822

21

Elected to the Oriel fellowship

Literary Context
1822 – Shelley d.

1825

24

Becomes vice-principal of Alban Hall; takes Holy Orders

1826

25

Becomes tutor at Oriel

Literary Context
1827 – Keble: The Christian Year; William Blake d.

1828

27

Meets Hurrell Froude; becomes Vicar of St Mary’s

Historical Context
1829 – Catholic Emancipation

1830

29

Newman and Froude deprived of Oriel tutorships

Literary Context
1830 – Hazlitt d.; Cobbett: Rural Rides

Historical Context
1830 – July Revolution; Accession of William IV

1832

31

Tour of Southern Europe

Literary Context
1833 – Walter Scott d.

Historical Context
1832 – Reform Act

1833

32

Returns to England; Arians of the Fourth Century; Tracts for the Times begins

Literary Context
1833 – Carlyle: Sartor Resartus

Historical Context
1833 – Keble Assize sermon; Factory Act

1834

33

Parochial and Plain sermons (1834-42)

Historical Context
1834 – New Poor Law; Parliament burns down

1837

36

Prophetical Office of the Church

Literary Context
1837 – Hurrell Froude: Literary Remains

Historical Context
1837 – Accession of Queen Victoria

1838

37

Appointed editor of The British Critic; Lectures on Justification

Literary Context
1839 – Darwin: Voyage of the Beagle

Historical Context
1838 – Rise of Chartism
1839 – Bedchamber plot; Birmingham riots; Penny postage Act

1841

40

Tract xc; condemned by University authorities

Historical Context
1841 – Robert Peel becomes Prime Minister

1842

41

Newman withdraws to Littlemore

Historical Context
1842 – Chartist riots; Lord Ashley’s Act protecting women and children in mines

1843

42

Retracts anti-Roman statements; resigns from St Mary’s; Oxford University Sermons

Literary Context
1843 – Carlyle: Past and Present; J.S. Mill: System of Logic
1844 – Disraeli: Coningsby

1845

44

Received into the Catholic Church; Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine

Historical Context
1845 – Maynooth grant

1846

45

Leaves Oxford

Literary Context
1846 – Edward Lear: Book of Nonsense

Historical Context
1846 – Repeal of Corn Laws, Election of Pius IX

1847

46

Created D.D. and Ordained Priest, in Rome

Literary Context
1847 – Charlotte Bronte: Jane Eyre, Thackeray: Vanity Fair; Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights

1848

47

Founds Birmingham Oratory; Loss and Gain

Literary Context
1848 – Dickens: Dombey and Son; Kingsley: Yeast; Mrs Gaskell: Mary Barton

Historical Context
1848 – Gorham judgement; European revolutions

1850

49

Difficulties of Anglicans 1851 50 Present Position of Catholics; Rector of Catholic University of Ireland

Literary Context
1850 – Dickens: David Copperfield; Tennyson: In Memoriam
1851 – Ruskin: Stones of Venice

Historical Context
1850 – Restoration of Catholic Hierarchy in England causes anti-Catholic sentiment
1851 – Ecclesiastical titles Act forbidding Catholic use of names of existing dioceses

1852

51

First Part of Idea of a University

Newman spends some weeks recuperating at Abbotsford, Robert Hope-Scott’s home in the Scottish Borders

1853

52

Unjustly found guilty of libelling Giacinto Achilli

Literary Context
1853 Matthew Arnold: The Scholar Gipsy
1854 – Dickens: Hard Times
1855 – Trollope: The Warden

Historical Context
1853Crimean War begins (ends ’56)
1855 – Daily Telegraph founded

1856

55

Calista

1857

56

Invited by Wiseman to undertake new Bible translation

Literary Context
1857 – George Eliot: Scenes of clerical life

Historical Context
1857 – Indian Mutiny

1858

57

Translation project fails for lack of support. Final return from Ireland

Historical Context
1858 – India transferred to Crown; Jews admitted to Parliament

1859

58

‘Consulting the faithful on matters of doctrine’; accusations of unorthodoxy

Literary Context
1859 Darwin: Origin of species; J.S.Mill: On Liberty
1860 – Wilkie Collins: Woman in White; Dickens: Great Expectations; Ruskin: Unto this last Essays and Reviews
1863 – Kingsley: Water Babies

Historical Context
1860Unification of Italy; loss of most Papal States; discovery of the source of the Nile

1864

63

Apologia pro Vita Sua

Literary Context
1864 Tolstoi: War and Peace; Trollope: Small House at Allington

Historical Context
1864 Pius IX: Syllabus of Errors

1865

64

Dreams of Gerontius

Literary Context
1864 Tolstoi: War and Peace; Trollope: Small House at Allington
1865 Lewis Carroll: Alice in Wonderland; Rudyard Kipling b.; W.B. Yeats b.
1866 – Kingsley: Hereward the Wake; Dostoyevsky: Crime and Punishment
1867 Marx: Das Kapital, Vol 1
1869 – Matthew Arnold: Culture and Anarchy; J.S. Mill: On the Subjection of Women

Historical Context
1864 Pius IX: Syllabus of Errors
1865 – Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
1866 – Treaty of Vienna; invention of Dynamite
1867 – Marx: Das Kapital, Vol 1
1869 – Foundation of Girton College, Cambridge; Abolition of debtors prisons

1870

69

Essay in aid of a Grammar of Assent

Literary Context
1870 – Death of Charles Dickens; Disraeli: Lothair
1874 – G.K. Chesteron b.

Historical Context
1870 – Vatican Council, Pius IX ‘Prisoner of the Vatican’, Franco-Prussian War

1872

71

Summer 1872: Newman at Abbotsford, his influence leading to many conversions and the construction of new churches

1875

74

Letter to the Duke of Norfolk

Literary Context
1875 Kingsley d.

Historical Context
1875 Purchase of Suez Canal

1877

76

Age 76 – Elected to honorary fellowship of Trinity College, Oxford

Literary Context
1877 Henry James: The American
1878 Thomas Hardy: The Return of the Native

Historical Context
1878 Election of Leo XIII

1879

78

Age 78 – Receives Cardinal’s Hat from Pope Leo XIII

Literary Context
1879 Ibsen: A Doll’s House
1880 George Eliot d.; Lytton Strachey b.
1881 – Thomas Carlyle d.

Historical Context
1879 Trotsky and Stalin b.; British Zulu War

1890

89

Dies in Birmingham, August 11

Literary Context
1890Oscar Wilde: The Picture of Dorian Gray

Historical Context
1890 Charles De Gaulle b.; First Electric power station; Forth Bridge opened